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Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the characteristics of human glioblastoma multiforme cell line U251

Danijela Drakulic, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Jelena Marjanovic Vicentic, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Natasa Kovacevic Grujicic, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Marija Schwirtlich, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Milena Milivojevic, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Slobodan Davidovic, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Andrijana Klajn, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Danijela Stanisavljevic, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia; Milena Stevanovic, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, 11010 Belgrade, Serbia


Primary brain tumors are among the leading causes of cancer mortality. Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in humans and Grade IV of glioma tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most prevalent brain tumor and one of the most invasive and deadly forms of cancer. The median survival for patients with GBM is approximately 15 months, even though significant advances in cancer therapy. Therefore, development of therapeutic strategies for GBM treatment becomes one of the major research focuses.
Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, is an important modulator of multiple biological processes. It modulates the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in a wide variety of normal and cancerous cells. Literature data revealed that RA possess anti-tumor effects by inhibiting cell growth and inducing differentiation and apoptosis. It has been used in clinical trials on glioma tumors, but the efficiency of RA treatment was heterogeneous.
These observations prompted us to analyze whether all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) influences important properties of human glioblastoma cell line U251, such as proliferation, viability, migration, adhesion and apoptosis. Additionally, we explored which concentration of ATRA is the most effective. Obtain results indicate that ATRA is able to alter some important features of U251 cell behavior.

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